Rampage is also the second highest grossing Warner Brothers film of all time in China, which is the most populous country in the world.
The big-budget action movie, which features mutated giant monsters attempting to destroy Chicago, took $154m (£116m), compared with the $97m (£73m) it took in the US.
Johnson wrote on Instagram: “Wow THANK YOU CHINA and I’m TRULY blown away and humbled by this monumental news.
“RAMPAGE becomes my highest grossing film of all time in the Middle Kingdom.”
The 46-year-old former wrestler also said the film had “surpassed” Warner Bros previous big box office hits, Harry Potter and Batman.
He went on: “RAMPAGE has officially hit the rare $1BILLION RMB [the official currency of China] mark and has become a TOP 20 all-time grossing international film”.
Based on a computer game of the same name, both draw heavily on King Kong, Godzilla and An American Werewolf In London.
With the tagline “Big meets bigger”, the storyline revolves around a primatologist (Johnson) and a geneticist, played by British actress Naomie Harris, battling to save the city from three enormous creatures – George the gorilla, Ralph the Werewolf and Lizzie the Dinosaur.
It is the third time Johnson has worked with director Brad Peyton, who also directed the star in action movies San Andreas and Journey 2: The Mysterious Island.
Johnson, who is married to singer Lauren Hashian, welcomed his third daughter earlier this year.
Rampage will be released on DVD in 17 July.