The 32-year-old was charged by Croatian prosecutors in connection with his testimony about former Dinamo Zagreb director Zdravko Mamic.
Mamic has been charged with embezzlement and fraud.
Prosecutors allege Modric gave a false statement in June about his 2008 transfer from Dinamo to Tottenham Hotspur.
Modric said in court that there had been an agreement with Mamic to pay the club half of the €21m (£16.5m) contract.
Prosecutors claim there was no legal contract between the men.
Mamic, considered the most powerful person in Croatian football, is charged with taking an unspecified amount without telling tax authorities.
The midfielder moved to Real Madrid in 2012.
The Croatian Football Federation said it was standing by the captain of the national team “because we believe that in this process he will prove his innocence as well as groundlessness of the charges”.
Mamic is accused, along with his brother and two others, of embezzling €15m since 2008.
This is alleged to have been done using different player transfer deals from Dinamo to foreign clubs.
He is also accused of not paying €1.6m in taxes.
Modric has not commented on the charge, but when questioned last July about his alleged false testimony said: “My conscience is clear.”