The 30-year-old complained of soreness during Middlesex’s win over Derbyshire and scans following the match revealed the extent of the damage.
Angus Fraser, Middlesex’s managing director of cricket, said: “Everybody at the club is devastated for Toby and our immediate thoughts are with him, and that he makes a full recovery.
“I know how frustrating it can be to miss a summer of cricket through injury, having been through this myself on two occasions. The ray of light is that you do recover and you do come back stronger and even more determined.
“Toby’s absence is obviously a set-back for Middlesex and he will be missed for more than just his bowling. He is a fantastic presence in the dressing room and has been one of the finest bowlers in the country in the past six or seven years.”
Roland-Jones originally suffered the injury towards the end of last year, which forced him to miss England’s Ashes tour to Australia.
The seam bowler had made an impressive start to his England career earlier in the year, taking 17 wickets in four Tests at an average of 19.64.